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透氣型防化服:解毒型材料和吸附型材料

[日期:22-07-28]

 
    透氣型的防化服像是給防化服配備了“哨兵”,將空氣中有毒有害的物質進行攔截,其基本原理就是通過防化服本身緊密的紡織品結構和一些輔助的涂層、膜層、透濕性粘合劑以及其中的化學藥劑等物質的吸附、分解作用,對進入防化服的空氣進行過濾、凈化,從而避免人體與有害物質的接觸。

 
1 解毒型材料
 
    某些化學物質可與危險化學品(毒劑)發生化學反應,從而使其失去毒性,這些物質稱為解毒劑。解毒型防護材料就是通過將解毒劑添加在紡織品上制備的,這類防護材料制成的防化服兼具防護效果好和透氣性好2個優點,但其對于環境中有毒物質的針對性較強。由于一種解毒劑只能與特定化學物質發生反應,而應對突發事件,常見的情況是污染源不明確或多種污染物同時存在,解毒型防化服適用性并不好,目前應用較少。
 
2 吸附型材料
 
    與解毒型材料利用化學變化進行解毒不同,吸附型材料對空氣的過濾過程屬于物理變化。同中學學到的活性炭凈化水的原理類似,吸附型防護材料是在紡織品中添加像活性炭一樣具有很大比表面積的微孔性物質,通過這些微孔物質的強吸附作用,對毒氣、毒液進行物理吸附,避免其與人體接觸或進入體內,從而達到防護目的。在防護材料界,活性炭依然扮演著重要的角色,是常用的吸附劑。
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